A new and innovative BMS concept that incorporates in-situ and in-operando EIS sensing combined with active cell switching for balancing at cell-level and sufficient computing power to execute in real-time a novel class of models/algorithms that:
Automatic model update based on improved sensor data.
Provide accurate knowledge-based and physics-inspired degradation models.
Demonstrate a lifetime extension of 20% at module level by cell balancing.
Validate complete avoidance of cell failure and/or TR.